Category: Färben

Dyeing yellow with goldenrod

Gelbe Stoffe gefaerbt mit Goldrute und Faerbetopf

From late summer onwards it can hardly be overlooked and is in full bloom: The time has come to dye beautiful yellows with goldenrod. Comparing my garden today on September 1st, 2020, with photos from previous years, it probably started to blossom earlier this year than in previous years. But it's still not too late to get your dye pots ready!

Goldenrod is one of the Dye plantsin my garden that just grow without any of my doing. This perennial reproduces through seeds, but also through rhizomes (i.e. underground) and has come to us from our neighboring garden. I harvest it abundantly, and wherever it threatens to take over beds, I dig it up.

Canadian goldenrod is the most common variant here now, Solidago canadensisIt is classified as a neophyte, meaning it was introduced in Europe after 1492. As the name suggests it is native to North America. "Neophyte", an invasive species that has been introduced, the vocabulary does not sound too friendly – but of course the plant did not migrate here on its own, even with bad intentions, but was brought to Europe as a valued ornamental plant. Although widespread in Germany, Canadian goldenrod is only rated problematic in a few areas here. According to the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation it has only a small impact on endangered species.So no reason to start removing goldenrod anywhere you see it! Goldenrod keeps blooming late in the season and is great for pollinating insects, and just as European goldenrod, Solidago virgaurea, is considered a medicinal plant.

Dyeing with goldenrod

I love to dry and store goldenrod to use in winter, as it is so abundant here. But I have heard from several dyers they don't get as clear yellow tones from dried goldenrod.

Edit: I suspect these unreliable dye results from dry goldenrod might have something to do with water quality. The Berlin tap water I use is very hard and has a neutral to minimally alkaline pH. If your water is very soft or acidic, and you have no success with this dye plant, try adding chalk (calcium carbonate). Here Catherine Ellis has written about the effect of pH on yellow dyes, I highly suggest to take a look.

All that said, it's the easiest to dye with fresh goldenrod while it's in season. Compared to other yellow plant dyes, such as dyer's chamomile and weld, I tend to use more plant material with goldenrod for bright dye results. But as it grows practically everywhere, that's no problem as long as the dye pot is big enough!
You can use flowers, flowers and leaves, for dyeing. The former dyes somewhat cleaner tones. When heating the plant matter and when dyeing, I make sure that it doesn't get too hot. If the dye is boiling for a longer period of time, the colour sometimes tends to have a brownish tinge instead of a rich yellow.

As always when dyeing with plants: it's well worth taking your time with it. That begins with preparing fabric or woolen yarn. Pre-mordanting is particularly important on plant fibres such as cotton fabric (it is in general, but especially so with this dye plant). Goldenrod dye takes definitely better to wool and silk - which does not mean that it is not worth experimenting with cotton fabrics!

Here I used as much goldenrod as I could fit in my pot. I didn't weigh any plants or fabric samples - but all fabrics were mordanted beforehand. And again and again I find it exciting to see how different mordants affect the color! I poured water on the flowers and slowly warmed them up and simmered for about two hours. For dyeing I poured everything through a cloth, squeezed out the flowers, and then put fabrics and woolen thread in it. And after the first round, I dyed other fabrics to exhaust the dye bath.

Drying goldenrod for the winter

To store goldenrod, I cut the flowering shoots so that I mainly harvest flowers and a few leaves. If there are already small side shoots, I cut above them so they flower again soon. It is best to harvest the flowers before they have fully opened, otherwise they ripen into fluffy seeds that spread everywhere like tiny parachutes.
To dry them, I hang goldenrod bouquets upside down, or lay them on paper or a lattice. In a dry and shady place, in my case in our garden shed. Once dry, I put them in large paper bags or cloth bags. To save space, you can strip the dry leaves and flowers off the almost woody stems before packing them.

To dye with the stored goldenrod, I first soak the dried plant in cold water overnight before carefully heating them to extract the dye.

Natural blue: Salt and fresh indigo leaves

Frische Blaetter von Japanischem Indigo zum Faerben

I really appreciate this way of dyeing with fresh indigo for its accessibility. You don't need special equipment or ingredients, just fresh leaves from your indigo plants, and some salt to coax the blue out from the lush green leaves of Dyer's knotweed, Polygonum tinctorum,I have also used this method with woad, Isatis tinctoria, and achieved beautiful colors, albeit lighter and more greenish. All it takes is a small amount of salt and the fabric. Compared to the various indigo vats that are used to dye blue, this is a lot simpler.

A Japanese craft, travelling the world

I think the first time I saw this method was in one of my favourite online spaces – a Facebook group of all things! „Indigo pigment extraction methods“ I highly recommend to join the group if you want to grow any indigo plant. A global community sharing experiments, learning, questions. The group is brillant! Whether you are gardening in pots or in a large field, here you will find others who are trying the same, helpful documents and a place for questions that might arise. The group was founded by Brit Boles, also known as seaspellfiber on Instagram.
So that's where I first saw this video, of a Japanese indigo dyer, and her demonstrating this "salt rub method". The dyery, Ohara Koubou, is located north of Kyoto.

How to dye blue with indigo and salt

This method works best on animal fibers such as silk and wool. You can pre-treat vegetable fibers with soy milk if you want to dye them using this method.
Pick the leaves - for a strong color it should be at least twice the weight of the fabric in leaves. Work as quick as possible. This method works thanks to enzymes in the leaves, which are broken down by heat over time.
I tear the leaves once and start adding a tablespoon of salt. Now the leaf mass is kneaded with the salt until more and more liquid comes out - depending on the amount of leaves add a little more salt. Then add the fabric (previously soaked in water and squeezed out) into the mass and massage the liquid into the fabric. When you're dyeing wool, rubbing it can felt the fibers. In that case, just gently knead the liquid into the fiber.

Depending on the time of harvest and the fiber, the hues vary from blue to more turquoise-green tones. My dye results with woad leaves were particularly variable - I only got real shades of blue with the dye knotweed. If you want to dye a more "typical" indigo blue, I'd recommend vatting your indigo.
But you can also use the salt method for deeper shades. To do this, overdye several times. However, you will need fresh indigo leaves for this, unlike a vat, in which you can dip your fibers repeatedly.
I hope give this method a try! I look forward to the time the plants are ready for it every year.

Local colour, global context

I think it's great and important to experience dye plants in a very local and accessible manner. Gardens and even overlooked backyards are so valuable to enable that. And it's so very empowering to be able to dye textiles ourselves with means that are understandable and tangible. For me, this is a very important part of a sustainable clothing culture. At the same time I ask myself more and more – where is the line between appreciation and cultural appropriation is. In this case, too. (There are many interesting thoughts on this tagged with #decolonisethegarden on Instagram.)

The spreading of plants to other places is “natural” and part of their survival strategy. There is also a long history of people who cherished, cultivated and took plants with them and thus spread them. But I want to look closely: How easily is the reality of colonization re-told and made invisible. Like the rest of our world, our gardens would look very different without the extraction of anything deemed valuable by colonizers. Who not only trafficked enslaved people, goods, wealth, foreign plants, but also the idea that the world is their (or our, as I am a white woman) garden, in which they can help themselves to anything. Unjustly, in this image, only some are allowed to help themselves, and others have to to plow, to tend the garden. Cultur, craft, religious practices are part of the self-service buffet. This self image is deeply rooted and practically wears a magic hat to be invisible - that's why I didn't even notice it for a long time. All the more reason to take a closer look now. Do you have any thoughts on that?

To conclude, I want to recommend a book. This is for you if you want to work with fresh indigo: ohn Marshall's „Soulful Dyeing for All Eternity. Singing the Blues“. It's a fantastic ressource.